As the international standards movement has gained
a broad range of activities have come under scrutiny.
Area of Standards
What It Is
Key Players and Developments
Enables different system components to
share information about learners. Provides a key for performance-
and decision-support systems.
IMS Learner Information Package (LIP) specification.
Personal and Private Information (PAPI) drafted by IEEE and
now being examined by ISO/IEC
Provides trusted mechanisms that protect
data and networks from un-authorized access.
Security issues are complex and continually requiring resolve
the primary groups working in the technology infrastructure
domain are the IETF and W3C. Specific topics include network security,
user authentication, computer system security, and cryptography.
The IETF and W3C are jointly developing standards for digital
The Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) has developed authorization
and authentication systems for access to data, e.g., NT Domains,
LDAP Servers, Kerberos, etc.
Enterprise Systems Integration
Focuses primarily on interoperability
of administrative systems.
SIF is creating a technology standard that will revolutionize
the business of (k-12) education through specifying protocols
that enable, e.g., student information systems to interoperate
with human resources, financial management, and voice telephony
systems both within and between schools.
IMS has developed specifications for enterprise systems and
is in process of developing these further. Also related to the
issue of integration are the IMS specifications on Digital repositories
OKI is developing a suite of APIs that define and implement
access between learning technology and common services.
Supports processes critical to knowledge
WfMC has been promoting and developing workflow standards for
about a decade.
OASIS is developing a suite of protocols and languages associated
with ebXML aimed at specifying the public interfaces required
The Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) is complementing
the work of OASIS through development of standard private interfaces.
The GKEC has established a standard process and scoped out areas
of activity associated with knowledge economics standardization.
Adapted from: Geoff Collier and Robby Robson,
Elearning Interoperability Standards, January 2002, 24.
A truly global collection of organizations is engaged in the development
of standards and specifications.
Individuals and organizations should follow the developments emanating
from these groups.