provide frameworks for the description, discovery, and management
of knowledge resources. Controlled vocabularies enhance effectiveness.
Learning objects use
metadata to manage content and context. Learning objects are a key
building block for marketplaces and repositories.
- OCLC (Online Computer Library Center Inc.) has facilitated the
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative as a forum for the development
and internationalization of interoperable cross-domain metadata
standards. OCLC is a nonprofit membership organization that serves
over 41,000 libraries in 82 countries.
- IEEE has accredited a Learning Object Metadata (LOM) Standard.
- IMS Global Learning Consortium, ADL initiatives, ARIADNE, and
other initiatives have adopted or adapted LOM.
- Educational Modeling Languages (e.g., EML) are emerging as a
means to describe and manage pedagogical usage of learning objects.
IMS is working to situate this effort. These languages will assist
in developing dynamic e-learning environments.
- The Global Knowledge Economics Council is leading efforts toward
international standardization of knowledge management. It has
made significant progress on the production of terminology and
vocabularies to support this.
- The Digital Library Federation has developed METS, the Metadata
Encoding Transmission Standard, as a generalized model for encoding
descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata for digital
- The PRISM Working Group is developing a metadata standard for
syndicating, aggregating, post-processing, and multi-purposing
content from magazines, news, catalogs, books, and mainstream
- ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 is developing a common vocabulary for usage
in the standardization of IT for learning, education, and training.
- HR-XML develops specifications aimed at producing industry standard
vocabularies relevant to Human Resources (e.g., recruitment, staffing,
- XTM is advancing the Topic Maps Paradigm by leveraging XML to
describe the associations between topics in heterogeneous collections
|Modular Content Packaging and Management
Allows streamlined communication between
a content repository and an LMS. Courses and learning objects can
be transferred from one CMS/LMS to another, re-purposed, and combined.
- IMS Content Packaging specification (commercialized as LRN by
Microsoft). IMS Simple Sequencing specification (under development).
- AICC guidelines and recommendations.
- ADL SCORM based in part on Aviation Industry work.
- IEEE LTSC is in the process of creating accredited standards
based on two parts of SCORM that were derived from AICC specifications.
- MPEG has developed content standards for handling digital video
and is in process of extending content management to include standards
for managing intellectual property rights.