A revolution in the sharing of knowledge…

Transforming e-Knowledge  
TABLE OF CONTENTS     Technologies, Standards, and Marketplaces for e-Knowledge
© SCUP 2003
   
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Standards Incorporate Consensus and Create Value (continued)

   

Chapter 4

Technologies, Standards, and Marketplaces for e-Knowledge

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Examples of e-Knowledge Standards

As the international standards movement has gained momentum,
a broad range of activities have come under scrutiny.

         
Area of Standards What It Is   Key Players and Developments
         
Vocabularies
and Metadata
 

Metadata standards provide frameworks for the description, discovery, and management of knowledge resources. Controlled vocabularies enhance effectiveness.

Learning objects use metadata to manage content and context. Learning objects are a key building block for marketplaces and repositories.

 
  • OCLC (Online Computer Library Center Inc.) has facilitated the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative as a forum for the development and internationalization of interoperable cross-domain metadata standards. OCLC is a nonprofit membership organization that serves over 41,000 libraries in 82 countries.
  • IEEE has accredited a Learning Object Metadata (LOM) Standard.
  • IMS Global Learning Consortium, ADL initiatives, ARIADNE, and other initiatives have adopted or adapted LOM.
  • Educational Modeling Languages (e.g., EML) are emerging as a means to describe and manage pedagogical usage of learning objects. IMS is working to situate this effort. These languages will assist in developing dynamic e-learning environments.
  • The Global Knowledge Economics Council is leading efforts toward international standardization of knowledge management. It has made significant progress on the production of terminology and vocabularies to support this.
  • The Digital Library Federation has developed METS, the Metadata Encoding Transmission Standard, as a generalized model for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata for digital library objects.
  • The PRISM Working Group is developing a metadata standard for “syndicating, aggregating, post-processing, and multi-purposing content from magazines, news, catalogs, books, and mainstream journals.”
  • ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 is developing a common vocabulary for usage in the standardization of IT for learning, education, and training.
  • HR-XML develops specifications aimed at producing industry standard vocabularies relevant to Human Resources (e.g., recruitment, staffing, competencies).
  • XTM is advancing the Topic Maps Paradigm by leveraging XML to describe the associations between topics in heterogeneous collections of information.
Modular Content Packaging and Management  

Allows streamlined communication between a content repository and an LMS. Courses and learning objects can be transferred from one CMS/LMS to another, re-purposed, and combined.

 
  • IMS Content Packaging specification (commercialized as LRN by Microsoft). IMS Simple Sequencing specification (under development).
  • AICC guidelines and recommendations.
  • ADL SCORM based in part on Aviation Industry work.
  • IEEE LTSC is in the process of creating accredited standards based on two parts of SCORM that were derived from AICC specifications.
  • MPEG has developed content standards for handling digital video and is in process of extending content management to include standards for managing intellectual property rights.

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