A revolution in the sharing of knowledge…

Transforming e-Knowledge  
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© SCUP 2003
 
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Transforming e-Knowledge

Title Page
Preface
Foreword
Advisory Committee
Introduction

Chapter List
  1. What is e-Knowledge?
  2. Vignettes from the e-Knowledge Future
  3. Paths to the e-Knowledge Future
  4. Technologies, Standards, and Marketplaces for e-Knowledge
  5. Infrastructures, Processes, Capabilities, and Cultures
  6. Best Practices, Business Models, and Strategies
  7. Achieving Success in the Emerging e-Knowledge Industry
  8. Resources

 

   


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Academic Enterprise Systems (AES): College and university systems which combine elements of course management, learning management, and content management, accessible through enterprise portals. Called learning and content management systems (LACMS) outside academe. (From chapter two.)

Accelerating Readiness for e-Knowledge: Enterprises can gain a competitive advantage by accelerating their development of the perspectives, visions, infrastructures, processes, and capabilities needed for e-knowledge. (From chapter seven.)

Activity Based Costing (ABC): Accounting practices that enable measurement of the cost of enterprise activities. (From chapter seven.)

Ambient e-Intelligence: Combining of artificial intelligence with e-knowledge to create collaborative intelligence for use by communities of practice. (From chapter four.)

Augmented Reality: Use of networked technology to provide knowledge and tools that enhance the capacity of people to perform tasks. (From chapter four.)

Autonomic Learning: Learning that originates within the enterprise, as determined and shaped at the grassroots level by communities of practice. (From chapter three.)

Best Practices: What does best practice mean during a period of reinvention and transformative change? It means existing conceptions of “best practice” will be challenged by new alternatives. Given the wide range of global knowledge environments, best practice will likely take radically different forms around the globe. (From chapter six.)

Blended Learning: Learning that combines physical and virtual resources and interactions. Also called “bricks and clicks” learning or “clicks and mortar” learning. (From chapter three.)

Business Models: The business models for e-knowledge are the combination of services, experiences and prices offered to acquire e-knowledge. These are likely to change significantly. Already, the unit cost of e-content is being driven downward. Low-cost e-learning practices are being developed in Asia, and those practices will likely be adapted to application in developed markets in North America and Europe. (From chapter six.)

Cascading Cycles of Reinvention: The dual forces of new Web technologies and e-knowledge standards and seamless, portalized enterprise applications infrastructures will accelerate the reinvention of processes and practices for e-knowledge. Iterative cycles of reinvention will cascade for decades. (From chapter six.)

Changing Enterprise Dynamics: Organizational dynamics are changed by productivity enhancements, increased collaboration, and innovation. Changing what is done and how it is done by enterprises of all kinds is the key to changing the knowledge ecology. (From chapter five.)

CMS: Course Management Systems support online management of course content, registration, grading, and other supports. (From chapter three.)

Co-Creation: When customers, members, or learners not only consume products, services, experiences, and knowledge, but participate in their creation, that is called co-creation. By definition, co-created knowledge is personalized to the needs of the co-creators. (From chapter seven.)

Content: Objective information, sometimes codified knowledge, sometimes a fusion of data, information, and knowledge that is used to support learning, business applications, and processes. (From chapter one.)

Content Syndication: Digitizing e-content and making it available through knowledge exchanges. (From chapter two.)

Context: The setting and conditions in which the content is or can be applied. Content is given different meaning by differing contexts. (From chapter one.)

Communities of Practice: Formal or informal groups linked by a common domain of practice and sometimes shared interests, which interact to advance and share explicit and tacit knowledge. When self-organized they can also be described as networks. (From chapter five.)

Community: The formal and/or informal groupings in which people function when they experience e-knowledge. (From chapter one.)

CRM: Customer Relationship Management capabilities enable enterprises to personalize and enhance their relationships with learners, faculty, staff, customers, and other stakeholders. The end game is creating indispensable relationships. (From chapter three.)

Customer Intimacy: Developing intimate indispensable relationships with customers, members, learners, and other stakeholders. (From chapter seven.)

Data: A collection of unorganized facts and/or figures. (From chapter one.)

Deep Learning: Promotes the development of conditionalized and contextualized knowledge and metacognition (the ability to think about one’s level of understanding) through communities of inquiry and/or communities of practice. (From chapter three.)

Demand Aggregators: Users of e-content from marketplaces who aggregate demand from users. Includes universities, for-profit learning enterprises, associations and corporations. (From chapter two.)

Digital Natives: Persons who are at home in the digital environment and comfortable with the patterns and cadences of digital practices. Digital Immigrants are everybody else. (From chapter two.)

Digital Rights Management (DRM)/Digital Asset Management: Enterprises develop the policies, protocols, and infrastructures needed to manage, meter and exchange their knowledge. (From chapter seven.)

Directed Learning: Learning directed and designed by the enterprise for individuals, teams or the entire enterprise, in response to changes in strategy, culture, new products, or market conditions. (From chapter three.)

Disintermediating: When the value chain is reinvented, middlepersons can be removed, or disintermediated. Over time, new opportunities to provide value appear in the value web, resulting in the appearing of new value-added providers. This is called re-intermediation. (From chapter two.)

Distance Learning: Providing learning experiences when faculty and learners are separated by distance. Most distance learning uses a program delivery metaphor. (From chapter three.)

Distributed Learning: Faculty, mentors, learners, and resources are distributed across physical and virtual settings, linked by networked technology. (From chapter three.)

Domain of Issues: The topical scope of a community of practice. (From chapter five.)

Double-Knit Structure: The weaving together of communities of practice and process teams. (From chapter five.)

e-Business: e-Business is more than e-commerce. It is the use of ICT to transform the way organizations conduct their business. e-Business enables enterprises to fundamentally change their relationships with customers, members, learners, suppliers/partners, and/or other stakeholders. (From chapter seven.)

e-Learning: The use of networked ICT to enhance, extend, and enrich learning experiences, changing access to knowledge and revolutionizing the patterns, cadences, and depth of interactivity. e-Learning uses an interactivity metaphor. (From chapter three.)

e-Knowledge: Digital representations of content and context become e-knowledge through the dynamics of human engagement with them. (From chapter one.)

e-Knowledge Industry: The full range of enterprises that provide and/or use e-knowledge constitutes the e-Knowledge Industry. (From chapter one.)

e-Knowledge Marketplaces: Repositories that are set up to encourage and enable the exchange of the elements of e-knowledge. Over time, horizontal marketplaces will cut across industry, disciplinary, and enterprise boundaries. (From chapter one.)

e-Knowledge Repositories: Places where the digital bits of e-knowledge are collected, aggregated and managed for use by a team, an enterprise, practitioners in a particular industry or academic discipline, or a consortium of organizations. Most early repositories are vertical channels, limited by proprietary software or ownership issues. (From chapter two.)

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI): Integration of disparate systems, typically using a “bus” architecture, where every system plugs into a common infrastructure and the bus handles the transactions for the systems. Today’s EAI solutions are typically proprietary and are characterized by a high Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and long timeframes. (From chapter five.)

Enterprise Applications Infrastructures and Solutions (EAIS): Tomorrow’s technology-based “applications array” will consist of fully integrated combinations of Web site and portal, legacy systems, next generation ERP, CRM, Web services, learning management systems, content management systems and other specialty applications. (From chapter five.)

ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the fully integrated software suites that support the organization’s finance, human resources, back-office business and customer relationship processes. (From chapter three.)

Expeditionary: Describes an evolving, adaptive approach to strategy, product development, and competency acquisition that allows rapid response to change and emerging insight. (From chapter two.)

Explicit Knowledge: Objective knowledge codified and captured in textbooks, manuals, process descriptions, learning objects, and topical content repositories. Typically, the ‘what’ of knowledge. (From chapter one.)

Great Products: Providing excellence and leadership in product quality and innovation. (From chapter seven.)

Indispensable Relationships: Knowledge is a key ingredient in enterprises forging relationships with learners, members or customers that are indispensable to their living, working, and learning. (From chapter two.)

Information: Data that has been organized in such a way that it achieves meaning, in a generalized way. (From chapter one.)

Information and Communications Technology (ICT): Enables e-knowledge and the reinvention of e-knowledge processes. (From chapter one.)

Intellectual Capital: The sum and synergy of an organization’s knowledge, experiences, relationships, processes, discoveries, innovations, and market presence. (From chapter one.)

Internet Culture: there are four sub-cultures that shape the Internet as we know it. 1) techno-meritocratic, 2) hacker, 3) virtual communitarian and 4) entrepreneurial cultures. (From chapter four.)

Internet2: The next generation of the Internet, providing great bandwidth and capability to its subscribers. (From chapter four.)

Interoperability: The ability of data, applications, and platforms to communicate with one another. (From chapter two.)

Knowledge: Information that is presented within a particular context, yielding insight on application in that context, by members of a community. (From chapter one.)

Knowledge Ecology: The combination of processes, culture, and capabilities, both internal and external, through which enterprises handle knowledge. Also knowledge ecosystem. (From chapter five.)

Knowledge Management (KM): The practice of nurturing, collecting, managing, sharing, and updating the knowledge resources of an enterprise. (From chapter one.)

Knowledge Management Strategy: Enterprises develop strategies for developing the infrastructure, processes, and capacities necessary to maximize the stewardship of their knowledge assets. (From chapter six.)

Learning Objects: Modules of re-usable learning content that are available in a full spectrum of forms and characteristics, ranging from paragraphs, individual images, and video clips, to chapters, full texts and anthologies. (From chapter four.)

LMS: Learning Management Systems support online and blended learning. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) provide substantially more robust content management capabilities designed to support the creation, storage, assembly, and delivery of modular, re-usable learning content. (From chapter three.)

Mentats: Human experts who serve as synthesizers of what is important in particular areas of expertise. (From chapter two.)

Metadata: Data about data; information about information. Metadata is used to describe information resources and learning objects. Typically, it reveals the contents of the learning object so enabling discovery, management, and exchange. It sometimes exists as a ‘wrapper,’ directly attached to a learning object; other times, it exists separately in searchable repositories. (From chapter four.)

Migration Paths: The emergent routes followed by enterprises in developing e-knowledge infrastructures and competencies. (From chapter two.)

Mobile Technology: People carry mobile digital devices (PDAs, notebooks, organizers, smart cell phones and variations) that enable them to engage communication and information and reshape their activities. (From chapter two.)

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): Nonprofit organizations that are not governmental entities. (From chapter seven.)

Ontologies: descriptions of concept domains that bring together controlled vocabularies and taxonomies with a high degree of relational specificity. (From chapter four.)

Open Source: Applications and devices whose source codes are known and operate according to open standards. (From chapter two.)

Operational Excellence: Providing world-class efficiencies, timeliness, and cost/price. (From chapter seven.)

Operational/Process Teams: A group with membership assigned by management, each member having clear boundaries of responsibility. The group is driven by project goals and milestones. (From chapter five.)

Organizational Storytelling: The essential tool of leadership wishing to engage their enterprise in understanding the future, disruptive technologies, and how they feel about change. (From chapter seven.)

Orthogonal Relationships: The e-knowledge environment enables multi-directional sharing of knowledge. The resulting value web incorporates relationships that can be expressed in dimensions that are wholly independent of each other. For example, cost and satisfaction. (From chapter four.)

Parasitic Computing: Networked servers are made to unwittingly perform computation on behalf of a remote node. (From chapter four.)

Pervasive Technology: Surrounding, ubiquitous and mobile technology, operating together. (From chapter two.)

Portals: Enterprise portals are the secure gateway through which learners, faculty, customers, staff and other stakeholders experience the enterprise’s products, services, and knowledge. Portals are key to process reinvention. (From chapter three.)

Process Reinvention: Using technology to reinvent business processes. Process reinvention is the heart of e-business—using technology to change the way organizations conduct their business. It changes the dynamics of organizations and their relationships with customers and stakeholders. (From chapter five.)

Resource Description Framework (RDF): A language specifically designed to support the sharing of metadata and information enriched by it. (From chapter four.)

Return on Investment (ROI): ROI is the measure of the hard tangible benefits from technology initiatives, compared to the investment needed to produce them. (From chapter five.)

Shared Practice: The knowledge developed, shared and stewarded by a community of practice. (From chapter five.)

SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol. (From chapter four.)

Standards: Formally or informally agreed-upon models that signal consensus. e-Knowledge standards will enable networks, computation and communication devices, applications, and data to interact with one another. (From chapter four.)

Strategic Learning: Learning that is designed to align individual objectives with the enterprise’s overarching strategies and objectives. It can be customized to fit each individual, teams, or working groups. Strategic learning uses knowledge management systems to “push” personalized, directed learning to employees on a perpetual basis. It also develops the infrastructures necessary to support autonomic learning. (From chapter three.)

Strategies: Enterprises will need to develop enterprise-wide strategies for knowledge and for their various activities supported by e-knowledge. Enterprise strategies for e-learning, for opening new secondary marketplaces for e-knowledge, and for using knowledge as an instrument of competitive advantage will become important. (From chapter six.)

Supply Aggregators: Providers of content to e-knowledge marketplaces who aggregate content. Includes universities, associations and other enterprises. (From chapter two.)

Tactical Learning: Learning that accomplishes short-term objectives and/or fills specific skills gaps (training). (From chapter three.)

Tacit Knowledge: Insights, intuitions, and subjective knowledge that constitute the intellectual capital of most organizations. Advanced knowledge management focuses on tacit knowledge. Typically, the ‘how’ (process) of knowledge acquisition and application. (From chapter one.)

The Grid: Grid computing involves harnessing the latent power of distributed computing systems to create massive grid arrays that can be used by scientists for research or by companies like IBM, Sun, and HP/Compaq to create distributed platforms for delivering services to their clients. (From chapter four.)

The Semantic Web: (An initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium). In the Knowledge Age, networked information will develop from both the syntax and the semantics of e-knowledge. Computer applications will be able to handle meaning and context from metadata (data used to describe the content of knowledge objects). (From chapter one.)

Ubiquitous Technology: Environments in which cheap, low-power computers with convenient displays are embedded in everyday environments—home, work, schools, automobiles, and public places. Also called ambient technology, meaning completely surrounding, encompassing and available. (From chapter two.)

Value Chain: A chain of activities and relationships that adds value to business processes. e-Knowledge enables the unbundling and reinvention of traditional value chains for learning and knowledge management and the enterprise activities that depend on them. The traditional value chain can become a value web in tomorrow’s e-knowledge environment. (From chapter one.)

Value on Investment (VOI): VOI is the measure of the value of “soft” or “intangible” benefits derived from technology initiatives, compared to the investment needed to produce them. ROI is a subset of VOI. (From chapter five.)

Web Services: XML, SOAP, UDDI, and WSDL enable disparate applications on varying platforms to communicate, opening the door for Web services that provide the promise of seamless interoperability between applications and platforms. (From chapter four.)

WINWINI: The new metaphor for the user’s experience—“What I Need, When I Need It.” The EAIS will provide the next killer app—a ubiquitous system for students, faculty and support staff to carry out learning, instruction, and research.

WSDL: Web Services Description Language. (From chapter four.)

XML: eXtensible Markup Language. (From chapter four.)

 

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